La crisis de los cuidados:

familias, mercados de trabajo y políticas del bienestar en Europa.

Prof. Inés Campillo Poza

Universidad Pontificia de Comillas, Madrid

 

Resumen:

En los últimos cuarenta años las sociedades europeas han experimentado profundos cambios sociodemográficos. Probablemente el mayor de estos cambios ha sido la incorporación de las mujeres al mercado de trabajo, que ha provocado a su vez una transformación profunda de los hogares: aumento de la tasa de divorcios, extensión del modelo de familia de dos sustentadores, incremento de los hogares monoparentales y unipersonales, caída de las tasas de fecundidad. La transformación de los hogares ha supuesto el colapso del que fuera durante años el gran mecanismo de conciliación de las sociedades industriales democráticas: el modelo de familia de varón sustentador y mujer madre ama de casa. Las mujeres han accedido al mercado de trabajo y con ellas se han hecho visibles los tiempos y tareas de cuidados a las que antes se consagraban de forma gratuita y exclusiva entre los muros del hogar, pero que ahora entran en conflicto con los imperativos y tiempos de unos mercados de trabajo masculinizados, y con unos programas de bienestar en muchos casos aún dirigidos a un tipo de modelo familiar ya obsoleto. De este modo, la reorganización social de los cuidados se ha convertido en el gran reto para las sociedades postindustriales.

Este curso se propone revisar el concepto de cuidados, analizar en detalle los cambios sociodemográficos que han experimentado las sociedades europeas en los últimos cuarenta años, analizar las distintas pautas de participación en el mercado laboral de las mujeres, estudiar cómo ha respondido la Unión Europea y los diversos Estados del bienestar nacionales a la crisis de los cuidados, y reflexionar sobre qué dimensiones (igualdad social, igualdad de género, libertad) se deben tener en cuenta o primar a la hora de pensar en un modelo de organización de los cuidados que sea justo y eficaz.

 

Sesiones:

1. ¿Qué son los cuidados? Debates feministas y evolución del concepto.

2. ¿Quién cuida y con qué consecuencias? Cuidados y ciudadanía.

3. La crisis de los cuidados: origen y formas que ha adoptado en diversas sociedades europeas.

4. Variedades de regímenes de bienestar y respuestas de policy a la crisis de los cuidados.

5. Consecuencias sociales de la crisis de los cuidados: desigualdades entre mujeres y hogares.

6. Utopías reales: ¿qué modelo de reorganización social de los cuidados?

 

Bibliografía

 

Badinter, E. (2011): Le conflict: la femme et la mère, Paris: Flammarion.

Borderías, C., Carrasco, C., Alemany, C. (comp.) (1994): Las mujeres y el trabajo. Rupturas conceptuales, Barcelona: Icaria.

Campillo, I. (2010): "Políticas de conciliación de la vida laboral y familiar en los regímenes de bienestar mediterráneos: los casos de Italia y España", Política y Sociedad, 47 (1): 189-213.

Carrasco, C. (2001): “La sostenibilidad de la vida humana: ¿Un asunto de mujeres?”, en Revista Mientras tanto, 82, pp. 43-70.

Carrasco, C., Borderías, C. y Torns, T. (Eds.) (2011): El trabajo de cuidados. Historia, teoría y políticas. Madrid: Libros de la Catarata.

Daly, M. (1994): "Comparing Welfare States: Toward a Gender Friendly Approach" en D. Sainsbury (Ed.), Gendering Welfare States, London: SAGE: 101-18.

Daly, M. (2002): "Care as a good for social policy", Journal of Social Policy, 31 (2): 251-70.

Daly, M. y Lewis, J. (2000): “The concept of Social Care and the Analysis of Contemporary Welfare States”; British Journal of Sociology, 51 (2): 281-298.

Delgado, M., Meil, G. y Zamora, F. (2008): "Short on children and short on family policies", Demographic Research, 19 (7): 1059-104.

Del Olmo, C. (2013): ¿Dónde está mi tribu? Maternidad y crianza en una sociedad individualista, Madrid: Enclave Editorial.

 Esping-Andersen, G. (1990): The three worlds of welfare capitalism, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Esping-Andersen, G. (1999): Social Foundations of Postindustrial Economies, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Fraser, N. (1989): “Women, Welfare, and the Politics of Need Interpretation”, Unruly Practices: Power, Discourse and Gender in Contemporary Social Theory, Polity Press, Cambridge, pp. 145-160.

Fraser, N. (2013): “After the Family Wage: A Postindustrial Thought Experiment”, Fortunes of Feminism: From State-Managed Capitalism to Neoliberal Crisis, London: Verso: 111-138.

Gilligan, C. (1982): In a different voice: psychological theory and women's development, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Gornick, J. C. y Meyers, M. K. (2009): "Institutions that Support Gender Equality in Parenthood and Employment" en J.C. Gornick y M.K. Meyers (Ed.), Gender Equality. Transforming Family Divisions of Labor, New York: Verso: 3-66.

Hantrais, L. (Ed.) (2000): Gendered policies in Europe. Reconciling employment and family life, Basingstoke: Macmillan.

Hantrais, L. (2004): Family policy matters. Responding to family change in Europe, Bristol: The Policy Press.

Jennings, A. L. (2004): “¿Público o privado? Economía institucional y feminismo”, en Ferber, M. A. y Nelson, J. A., (eds.), Más allá del hombre económico, Madrid: Cátedra Feminismos.

Lewis, J. (1992): "Gender and the development of Welfare Regimes", Journal of European Social Policy, 2 (3): 159-73.

Lewis, J. (2006): "Work/Family Reconciliation, Equal Opportunities and Social Policies: the Interpretation of Policy Trajectories at the EU Level and the Meaning of Gender Equality", Journal of European Public Policy, 13 (3): 420-37.

Lewis, J. (2007): “Gender, Ageing and the ‘New Social Settlement’: The Importance of Developing a Holistic Approach to Care Policies”, Current Sociology, 55 (2): 271-286.

Lister, R. (1990): “Women, economic dependency and citizenship”, Journal of Social Policy, 19 (4): 445-467.

Marshall, T. H. (1998): Ciudadanía y clase social, Madrid: Alianza Editorial.

Molinier, P., Laugier, S. y Paperman, P. (2009): Qu’est-ce que le care? Souci des autres, sensibilicé, responsabilicé, Paris: Éditions Payot & Rivages.

Moreno Mínguez, A. (2007): Familia y empleo de la mujer en los regímenes de bienestar del sur de Europa. Incidencia de las políticas familiares y laborales, Madrid: CIS.

Nelson, B. J. (1984): "Women’s poverty and women’s citizenship: some political consequences of economic marginality", Signs, 10 (2): 209-31.

O'Connor, J. S. (1993): "Gender, class and citizenship in the comparative analysis of welfare state regimes: theoretical and methodological issues", British Journal of Sociology, 44 (3): 501-18.

Pateman, C. (1988): "The Patriarchal Welfare State" en A. Gutmann (Ed.), Democracy and the Welfare State, New Jersey: Princeton University Press: 231-60.

Pateman, C. (1995): El contrato sexual, Barcelona: Anthropos.

Pérez Orozco, A. (2006): “Amenaza tormenta: la crisis de los cuidados y la reorganización del sistema económico”, en Revista de Economía Crítica, 5, pp. 7-37.

Pfau-Effinger, B. (2005): "Welfare State Policies and the Development of care arrengements", European Societies, 7 (2): 321-47.

Tronto, J. (2009): Un monde vulnérable. Pour une politique du care, Paris: Éditions La Découverte.

 


Intitulé du cours : Simulation Stratégique des Conflits.

Enseignant : David DELBARRE        

Fonction : Professeur en CPGE

Type de cours : Séminaire d’ouverture niveau Cycle Master.

Résumé du cours - Objectifs

Après une présentation de différents mécanismes existants de simulation stratégique des conflits (appelé Kriegspiel en Allemagne, Wargame dans les pays anglo-saxons) et des forces et faiblesses de chacun de ces systèmes, une réflexion critique sera menée sur l'utilité et les limites de la simulation pour aider à comprendre la dynamique des conflits.

 

L’objectif principal est de permettre aux étudiants de produire à un niveau satisfaisant leur propre simulation originale d’une campagne militaire, d’une crise actuelle majeure ou de la bataille historique de leur choix.

Toutes les étapes d’un vrai travail de création seront réalisées en équipe, depuis la recherche documentaire détaillée en passant par la modélisation des facteurs clés du conflit, la rédaction des règles, la conception graphique, jusqu'au développement et à la réalisation de tests rigoureux. Cela afin d’aboutir à la production d'un produit fini avec carte, marqueurs et notes de conception.

 

Font également parties des objectifs de ce cours, les capacités suivantes : savoir apprécier l’artificialité des simulations de conflits et la tension inévitable entre «réalisme» et  «jouabilité», savoir analyser en profondeur les dynamiques des situations de conflit et donc mieux comprendre les facteurs physiques et humains en utilisant la simulation et la modélisation,  ainsi que développer un large éventail de compétences liées à l’infographie, le travail en équipe et la recherche d’informations sur Internet.

 

Evaluation

C’est la production finale du groupe qui sera évaluée : celle-ci comprendra les règles et les notes de conception de la simulation de conflit réalisée (7500 mots maximum), une carte (format A2), les pions et marqueurs (100 maximum).  

Une évaluation par les pairs sera prise en compte.

 

Plan des séances

6 séances de 3 heures

Séance 1 : Présentation et tests de différents systèmes de simulations de conflits. Analyse critique des forces et faiblesses des différents systèmes. Réflexion et recherche sur le projet.

Séance 2 : Design des différents composants de la simulation. Cours et mise en pratique.

Séance 3 : Modélisation de la dynamique du conflit. Cours et mise en pratique.

Séance 4 : Modélisation des structures de commandement. Cours et mise en pratique.

Séance 5 : Tests et développement de la simulation.

Séance 6 : Présentation et évaluation des productions.

 

Bibliographie

Professor Philip Sabin, King’s College London, Simulating War, Studying conflict through simulation games edited by Bloomsbury.

Peter Perla’s The Art of Wargaming. A guide for Professionals and Hobbyists. Edited by John Curry.

Général Vincent Desportes, Décider dans l’incertitude, édité chez Economica.

Charles Ardant du Picq, Etudes sur le combat, Combat antique et moderne aux éditions Ivrea.

Mark Herman, Mark Frost, Robert Kurz, WarGaming for Leaders, Strategic Decision Making from the Battlefield to the Boardroom, edited by Mc Graw Hill

John Curry and Tim Price, Matrix Games for modern wargaming, Developments in Professional and Educational Wargames, Innovation in Wargaming.

Zone of Control, Perspectives on wargaming, edited by Pat Harrigan and Matthew G. Kirschenbaum.

Little Wars, H.G.Wells, edited by Echo Library.


The course objective is to introduce students to ethical thinking in a business context. It presents the basics of business ethics and relates business ethics to sustainability. At the end of the course, the students should be able to grasp the logic of ethical thinking, to identify ethical aspects of a given problem, to formulate a coherent and autonomous reasoning based on clear and solid premises and to apply this knowledge in a professional context, in particular in relation to sustainability.

The sub-objectives of the course are to:

1.      Introduce to ethics as a practical activity, its object, the main characteristics of good reasoning.

2.      Understand the nature of business ethics and its importance for business and economy.

3.      Understand the debate between shareholder and stakeholder theories as well as the adversarial nature of business.

4.      Understand the importance of market failures for business ethics and sustainability.

5.      Reflect on the moral duties of business in relation to sustainability.

The course is based on: (a) lectures, which present the concepts and provide additional elements on course’s themes and readings, (b) homework, i.e. required readings and assignments and (c) participation through presentations and in-class discussions.The course is composed of six lectures of three hours.


L’objectif de ce cours est d’introduire les étudiants désireux de développer une compétence spécifique sur le Moyen-Orient, à la compréhension de la Turquie et de l’Iran contemporains. Le cours repose sur une approche croisée de l’histoire récente et des enjeux actuels de ces deux pays, tout en les inscrivant dans leur contexte régional et international. On abordera des questions allant de l’histoire de l’Etat aux migrations, de la religion à la diplomatie nucléaire, en passant par la situation des minorités ou les évolutions des périphéries des deux pays.


Provide students with a critical reflection on the ability of Corporate Social Responsibility practices to reform business practices, increase human rights and improve environment protection. Based on empirical cases, the seminar invites students to consider how CSR practices might be considered as an element of a wider CPA. In this perspective, the main function of CSR would be to avoid stricter governmental regulations and promote self regulation or civil society based regulation. The seminar shows how the development of CSR in France and Europe is tightly coupled to New Public Management reforms that affected regulating governmental agencies such as the Labor Inspection or the Environmental Protection Agency and promoted the rôle of Third Sector organisations such as associations or NGOs which governments have increasingly used as sub subcontractors. Limited resources (human, financial...) at the disposal of these Third Sector organisations often leads in turn to decoupling practices or what Nils Brunsson called « organisational hypocrisy ». This seminar also aims to illustrate the dimensions of political philosophy at the roots upon which these organisational practices phenomena rest. Eventually the seminar considers how CSR practices (social audit, fair trade labels NGOs, codes of conduct) are part of a neoliberal governmentality regime wanted by both the governments, corporate lobbying as well as some NGOs. One of the aim of this seminar is to encourage students to think about the real capacity of civil society to reform society in order to highlight the significance of the ideas of Tocqueville today and offer students more critical alternative perspectives on civil society. To the extent that these initiatives of civil society prevent the development of other initiatives with a important emancipatory potential, it is necessary to consider other options than civil society (big society) and CSR to reform the impact that businesses can have on today's society.

Despite increasing patterns of cooperation in areas such as trade, the environment or nuclear non-proliferation, the international community has always been faced with countries that were reluctant to "play by the rules." While some such as Iraq and Libya have or are well on their way to salvaging their relationship with the international community, others such as Iran and North Korea are still engaged in illegal activities and thus hold contentious relationships with many states. Does the world have a duty to engage such dangerous actors? What are the risks in developing diplomatic incentives with countries that are hard to trust? Can those states ever recover from having been rogues?

The purpose of this class is to examine the status of ‘rogue’, or ‘difficult’ states in the world, and to determine how the international community has been dealing with such states, how it can relate with them in order to achieve peaceful outcomes, and whether or not a new approach is needed.

First, we will attempt to draw the main characteristics of rogue states. Then, we will investigate potential policies on how to deal with such actors, and we will focus on a wide range of tactics from engagement through diplomacy and economic incentives to much less accommodating strategies such as coercion, pre-emptive strikes and regime change. This course will thus draw on understanding of international relations theory, foreign policy as well as conflict resolution techniques, and will enable students to further their own research interests by working on assignments focusing on the ‘rogue’ of their choice.